Oracle PL/SQL Tutorial/Analytical Functions/RANGE

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A seven-day MAX and MIN on Tuesdays

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> SQL> SQL> -- create demo table SQL> create table Employee(

 2    ID                 VARCHAR2(4 BYTE)         NOT NULL,
 3    First_Name         VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 4    Last_Name          VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 5    Start_Date         DATE,
 6    End_Date           DATE,
 7    Salary             Number(8,2),
 8    City               VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 9    Description        VARCHAR2(15 BYTE)
10  )
11  /

Table created. SQL> SQL> -- prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date,

                 Salary,  City,       Description)
 2               values ("01","Jason",    "Martin",  to_date("19960725","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20060

725","YYYYMMDD"), 1234.56, "Toronto", "Programmer")

 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date,

                 Salary,  City,       Description)
 2                values("02","Alison",   "Mathews", to_date("19760321","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19860

221","YYYYMMDD"), 6661.78, "Vancouver","Tester")

 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date,

                 Salary,  City,       Description)
 2                values("03","James",    "Smith",   to_date("19781212","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19900

315","YYYYMMDD"), 6544.78, "Vancouver","Tester")

 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date,

                 Salary,  City,       Description)
 2                values("04","Celia",    "Rice",    to_date("19821024","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19990

421","YYYYMMDD"), 2344.78, "Vancouver","Manager")

 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date,

                 Salary,  City,       Description)
 2                values("05","Robert",   "Black",   to_date("19840115","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980

808","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Tester")

 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date,

                 Salary, City,        Description)
 2                values("06","Linda",    "Green",   to_date("19870730","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19960

104","YYYYMMDD"), 4322.78,"New York", "Tester")

 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date,

                 Salary, City,        Description)
 2                values("07","David",    "Larry",   to_date("19901231","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980

212","YYYYMMDD"), 7897.78,"New York", "Manager")

 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date,

                 Salary, City,        Description)
 2                values("08","James",    "Cat",     to_date("19960917","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20020

415","YYYYMMDD"), 1232.78,"Vancouver", "Tester")

 3  /

1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee

 2  /

ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME START_DAT END_DATE SALARY CITY DESCRIPTION


---------- ---------- --------- --------- ---------- ---------- ---------------

01 Jason Martin 25-JUL-96 25-JUL-06 1234.56 Toronto Programmer 02 Alison Mathews 21-MAR-76 21-FEB-86 6661.78 Vancouver Tester 03 James Smith 12-DEC-78 15-MAR-90 6544.78 Vancouver Tester 04 Celia Rice 24-OCT-82 21-APR-99 2344.78 Vancouver Manager 05 Robert Black 15-JAN-84 08-AUG-98 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 06 Linda Green 30-JUL-87 04-JAN-96 4322.78 New York Tester 07 David Larry 31-DEC-90 12-FEB-98 7897.78 New York Manager 08 James Cat 17-SEP-96 15-APR-02 1232.78 Vancouver Tester 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> SELECT "Tuesday, "||TO_CHAR(x.start_date,"Month dd,yyyy") "Tuesdays",

 2    x.minp "Minimum Salary", x.maxp "Maximum salary"
 3  FROM
 4    (SELECT i.start_date, i.salary,
 5       MIN(i.salary) OVER( ORDER BY i.start_date
 6         RANGE BETWEEN INTERVAL "7" day PRECEDING
 7      AND CURRENT ROW) minp,
 8       MAX(i.salary) OVER( ORDER BY i.start_date
 9         RANGE BETWEEN INTERVAL "7" day PRECEDING
10      AND CURRENT ROW) maxp
11    FROM employee i
12    ORDER BY i.start_date) x
13  WHERE x.start_date in
14    (SELECT z.start_date -- , NEXT_DAY(z.start_date-1,"Tuesday")
15      FROM employee z
16      WHERE z.start_date = NEXT_DAY(z.start_date-1,"Tuesday"));

Tuesdays Minimum Salary Maximum salary


-------------- --------------

Tuesday, December 12,1978 6544.78 6544.78 Tuesday, September 17,1996 1232.78 1232.78 SQL> SQL> SQL> -- clean the table SQL> drop table Employee

 2  /

Table dropped. SQL> SQL> SQL></source>


Order by range unbounded preceding

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> SQL> SQL> create table employees(

 2    empno      NUMBER(4)
 3  , ename      VARCHAR2(8)
 4  , init       VARCHAR2(5)
 5  , job        VARCHAR2(8)
 6  , mgr        NUMBER(4)
 7  , bdate      DATE
 8  , msal       NUMBER(6,2)
 9  , comm       NUMBER(6,2)
10  , deptno     NUMBER(2) ) ;

Table created. SQL> SQL> SQL> insert into employees values(1,"Jason", "N", "TRAINER", 2, date "1965-12-18", 800 , NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(2,"Jerry", "J", "SALESREP",3, date "1966-11-19", 1600, 300, 10); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(3,"Jord", "T" , "SALESREP",4, date "1967-10-21", 1700, 500, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(4,"Mary", "J", "MANAGER", 5, date "1968-09-22", 1800, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(5,"Joe", "P", "SALESREP",6, date "1969-08-23", 1900, 1400, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(6,"Black", "R", "MANAGER", 7, date "1970-07-24", 2000, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(7,"Red", "A", "MANAGER", 8, date "1971-06-25", 2100, NULL, 40); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(8,"White", "S", "TRAINER", 9, date "1972-05-26", 2200, NULL, 40); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(9,"Yellow", "C", "DIRECTOR",10, date "1973-04-27", 2300, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(10,"Pink", "J", "SALESREP",null,date "1974-03-28", 2400, 0, 30); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> select mgr, ename, msal

 2  ,      sum(msal) over
 3         ( order by mgr, msal
 4           range unbounded preceding
 5         ) as cumulative
 6  from   employees
 7  order  by mgr, msal;
  MGR      last_name         MSAL CUMULATIVE

-------------------- ------ ----------
    2 Jason                   800        800
    3 Jerry                  1600       2400
    4 Jord                   1700       4100
    5 Mary                   1800       5900
    6 Joe                    1900       7800
    7 Black                  2000       9800
    8 Red                    2100      11900
    9 White                  2200      14100
   10 Yellow                 2300      16400

null Pink 2400 18800 10 rows selected. SQL> SQL> drop table employees; Table dropped. SQL> SQL></source>


PARTITION BY, order by and "range unbounded preceding"

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> SQL> SQL> create table employees(

 2    empno      NUMBER(4)
 3  , ename      VARCHAR2(8)
 4  , init       VARCHAR2(5)
 5  , job        VARCHAR2(8)
 6  , mgr        NUMBER(4)
 7  , bdate      DATE
 8  , msal       NUMBER(6,2)
 9  , comm       NUMBER(6,2)
10  , deptno     NUMBER(2) ) ;

Table created. SQL> SQL> SQL> insert into employees values(1,"Jason", "N", "TRAINER", 2, date "1965-12-18", 800 , NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(2,"Jerry", "J", "SALESREP",3, date "1966-11-19", 1600, 300, 10); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(3,"Jord", "T" , "SALESREP",4, date "1967-10-21", 1700, 500, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(4,"Mary", "J", "MANAGER", 5, date "1968-09-22", 1800, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(5,"Joe", "P", "SALESREP",6, date "1969-08-23", 1900, 1400, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(6,"Black", "R", "MANAGER", 7, date "1970-07-24", 2000, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(7,"Red", "A", "MANAGER", 8, date "1971-06-25", 2100, NULL, 40); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(8,"White", "S", "TRAINER", 9, date "1972-05-26", 2200, NULL, 40); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(9,"Yellow", "C", "DIRECTOR",10, date "1973-04-27", 2300, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(10,"Pink", "J", "SALESREP",null,date "1974-03-28", 2400, 0, 30); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> break on mgr SQL> SQL> select mgr, ename, msal

 2  ,      sum(msal) over
 3         ( PARTITION BY mgr
 4           order by mgr, msal, empno
 5           range unbounded preceding
 6         ) as cumulative
 7  from   employees
 8  order  by mgr, msal;
  MGR      last_name         MSAL CUMULATIVE

-------------------- ------ ----------
    2 Jason                   800        800
    3 Jerry                  1600       1600
    4 Jord                   1700       1700
    5 Mary                   1800       1800
    6 Joe                    1900       1900
    7 Black                  2000       2000
    8 Red                    2100       2100
    9 White                  2200       2200
   10 Yellow                 2300       2300

null Pink 2400 2400 10 rows selected. SQL> SQL> clear breaks breaks cleared SQL> SQL> drop table employees; Table dropped. SQL> SQL></source>


Sum with Order by range unbounded preceding

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> SQL> SQL> create table employees(

 2    empno      NUMBER(4)
 3  , ename      VARCHAR2(8)
 4  , init       VARCHAR2(5)
 5  , job        VARCHAR2(8)
 6  , mgr        NUMBER(4)
 7  , bdate      DATE
 8  , msal       NUMBER(6,2)
 9  , comm       NUMBER(6,2)
10  , deptno     NUMBER(2) ) ;

Table created. SQL> SQL> SQL> insert into employees values(1,"Jason", "N", "TRAINER", 2, date "1965-12-18", 800 , NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(2,"Jerry", "J", "SALESREP",3, date "1966-11-19", 1600, 300, 10); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(3,"Jord", "T" , "SALESREP",4, date "1967-10-21", 1700, 500, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(4,"Mary", "J", "MANAGER", 5, date "1968-09-22", 1800, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(5,"Joe", "P", "SALESREP",6, date "1969-08-23", 1900, 1400, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(6,"Black", "R", "MANAGER", 7, date "1970-07-24", 2000, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(7,"Red", "A", "MANAGER", 8, date "1971-06-25", 2100, NULL, 40); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(8,"White", "S", "TRAINER", 9, date "1972-05-26", 2200, NULL, 40); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(9,"Yellow", "C", "DIRECTOR",10, date "1973-04-27", 2300, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into employees values(10,"Pink", "J", "SALESREP",null,date "1974-03-28", 2400, 0, 30); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> select mgr, ename, msal

 2  ,      sum(msal) over
 3         ( order by mgr, msal, EMPNO
 4           range unbounded preceding
 5         ) as cumulative
 6  from   employees
 7  order  by mgr, msal;
  MGR      last_name         MSAL CUMULATIVE

-------------------- ------ ----------
    2 Jason                   800        800
    3 Jerry                  1600       2400
    4 Jord                   1700       4100
    5 Mary                   1800       5900
    6 Joe                    1900       7800
    7 Black                  2000       9800
    8 Red                    2100      11900
    9 White                  2200      14100
   10 Yellow                 2300      16400

null Pink 2400 18800 10 rows selected. SQL> SQL> drop table employees; Table dropped. SQL> SQL></source>