Oracle PL/SQL/Select Query/Null Value Compare

Материал из SQL эксперт
Перейти к: навигация, поиск

Convert null number column to 0

   <source lang="sql">


SQL> CREATE TABLE EMP(

 2      EMPNO NUMBER(4) NOT NULL,
 3      ENAME VARCHAR2(10),
 4      JOB VARCHAR2(9),
 5      MGR NUMBER(4),
 6      HIREDATE DATE,
 7      SAL NUMBER(7, 2),
 8      COMM NUMBER(7, 2),
 9      DEPTNO NUMBER(2)
10  );

Table created. SQL> SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7369, "SMITH", "CLERK", 7902,TO_DATE("17-DEC-1980", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 800, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7499, "ALLEN", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("20-FEB-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1600, 300, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7521, "WARD", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("22-FEB-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1250, 500, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7566, "JONES", "MANAGER", 7839,TO_DATE("2-APR-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 2975, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7654, "MARTIN", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("28-SEP-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1250, 1400, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7698, "BLAKE", "MANAGER", 7839,TO_DATE("1-MAY-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 2850, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7782, "CLARK", "MANAGER", 7839,TO_DATE("9-JUN-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 2450, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7788, "SCOTT", "ANALYST", 7566,TO_DATE("09-DEC-1982", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 3000, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7839, "KING", "PRESIDENT", NULL,TO_DATE("17-NOV-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 5000, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7844, "TURNER", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("8-SEP-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1500, 0, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7876, "ADAMS", "CLERK", 7788,TO_DATE("12-JAN-1983", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1100, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7900, "JAMES", "CLERK", 7698,TO_DATE("3-DEC-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 950, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7902, "FORD", "ANALYST", 7566,TO_DATE("3-DEC-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 3000, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7934, "MILLER", "CLERK", 7782,TO_DATE("23-JAN-1982", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1300, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> select ename, sal+nvl(comm,0) from emp; ENAME SAL+NVL(COMM,0)


---------------

SMITH 800 ALLEN 1900 WARD 1750 JONES 2975 MARTIN 2650 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 KING 5000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 ENAME SAL+NVL(COMM,0)


---------------

JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 14 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped.

 </source>
   
  


is null

   <source lang="sql">
 

SQL> SQL> CREATE TABLE EMP

 2  (EMPNO NUMBER(4) NOT NULL,
 3   ENAME VARCHAR2(10),
 4   JOB VARCHAR2(9),
 5   MGR NUMBER(4),
 6   HIREDATE DATE,
 7   SAL NUMBER(7, 2),
 8   COMM NUMBER(7, 2),
 9   DEPTNO NUMBER(2)
10  );

Table created. SQL> SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7369, "SMITH", "CLERK", 7902,TO_DATE("17-DEC-1980", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 800, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7499, "ALLEN", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("20-FEB-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1600, 300, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7521, "WARD", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("22-FEB-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1250, 500, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7566, "JONES", "MANAGER", 7839,TO_DATE("2-APR-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 2975, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7654, "MARTIN", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("28-SEP-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1250, 1400, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7698, "BLAKE", "MANAGER", 7839,TO_DATE("1-MAY-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 2850, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7782, "CLARK", "MANAGER", 7839,TO_DATE("9-JUN-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 2450, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7788, "SCOTT", "ANALYST", 7566,TO_DATE("09-DEC-1982", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 3000, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7839, "KING", "PRESIDENT", NULL,TO_DATE("17-NOV-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 5000, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7844, "TURNER", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("8-SEP-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1500, 0, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7876, "ADAMS", "CLERK", 7788,TO_DATE("12-JAN-1983", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1100, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7900, "JAMES", "CLERK", 7698,TO_DATE("3-DEC-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 950, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7902, "FORD", "ANALYST", 7566,TO_DATE("3-DEC-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 3000, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES (7934, "MILLER", "CLERK", 7782,TO_DATE("23-JAN-1982", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1300, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> select empno, ename

 2  from emp
 3  where mgr is null;
    EMPNO ENAME

----------
     7839 KING

1 row selected. SQL> SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL> SQL> SQL> --

 </source>
   
  


IS NULL with NOT operator

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> SQL> -- create demo table SQL> create table Employee(

 2    ID                 VARCHAR2(4 BYTE)         NOT NULL,
 3    First_Name         VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 4    Last_Name          VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 5    Start_Date         DATE,
 6    End_Date           DATE,
 7    Salary             Number(8,2),
 8    City               VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 9    Description        VARCHAR2(15 BYTE)
10  )
11  /

Table created. SQL> SQL> -- prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2               values ("01","Jason",    "Martin",  to_date("19960725","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20060725","YYYYMMDD"), 1234.56, "Toronto",  "Programmer")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("02","Alison",   "Mathews", to_date("19760321","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19860221","YYYYMMDD"), 6661.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("03","James",    "Smith",   to_date("19781212","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19900315","YYYYMMDD"), 6544.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("04","Celia",    "Rice",    to_date("19821024","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19990421","YYYYMMDD"), 2344.78, "Vancouver","Manager")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("05","Robert",   "Black",   to_date("19840115","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980808","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("06","Linda",    "Green",   to_date("19870730","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19960104","YYYYMMDD"), 4322.78,"New York",  "Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("07","David",    "Larry",   to_date("19901231","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980212","YYYYMMDD"), 7897.78,"New York",  "Manager")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("08","James",    "Cat",     to_date("19960917","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20020415","YYYYMMDD"), 1232.78,NULL         , "Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee

 2  /

ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME START_DAT END_DATE SALARY CITY DESCRIPTION


---------- ---------- --------- --------- ---------- ---------- ---------------

01 Jason Martin 25-JUL-96 25-JUL-06 1234.56 Toronto Programmer 02 Alison Mathews 21-MAR-76 21-FEB-86 6661.78 Vancouver Tester 03 James Smith 12-DEC-78 15-MAR-90 6544.78 Vancouver Tester 04 Celia Rice 24-OCT-82 21-APR-99 2344.78 Vancouver Manager 05 Robert Black 15-JAN-84 08-AUG-98 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 06 Linda Green 30-JUL-87 04-JAN-96 4322.78 New York Tester 07 David Larry 31-DEC-90 12-FEB-98 7897.78 New York Manager 08 James Cat 17-SEP-96 15-APR-02 1232.78 Tester 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> -- IS NULL with NOT operator: SQL> SQL> SELECT ID, First_Name, Last_Name

 2  FROM Employee
 3  WHERE City IS NOT NULL;

ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME


---------- ----------

01 Jason Martin 02 Alison Mathews 03 James Smith 04 Celia Rice 05 Robert Black 06 Linda Green 07 David Larry 7 rows selected. SQL> SQL> -- clean the table SQL> drop table Employee

 2  /

Table dropped. SQL> SQL>


 </source>
   
  


Not empty(null)

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> create table emp

 2  ( empno      NUMBER(4)    constraint E_PK primary key
 3  , ename      VARCHAR2(8)
 4  , init       VARCHAR2(5)
 5  , job        VARCHAR2(8)
 6  , mgr        NUMBER(4)
 7  , bdate      DATE
 8  , sal       NUMBER(6,2)
 9  , comm       NUMBER(6,2)
10  , deptno     NUMBER(2)    default 10
11  ) ;

Table created. SQL> insert into emp values(1,"Tom","N", "Coder", 13,date "1965-12-17", 800 , NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(2,"Jack","JAM", "Tester",6,date "1961-02-20", 1600, 300, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(3,"Wil","TF" , "Tester",6,date "1962-02-22", 1250, 500, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(4,"Jane","JM", "Designer", 9,date "1967-04-02", 2975, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(5,"Mary","P", "Tester",6,date "1956-09-28", 1250, 1400, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(6,"Black","R", "Designer", 9,date "1963-11-01", 2850, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(7,"Chris","AB", "Designer", 9,date "1965-06-09", 2450, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(8,"Smart","SCJ", "Coder", 4,date "1959-11-26", 3000, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(9,"Peter","CC", "Designer",NULL,date "1952-11-17", 5000, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(10,"Take","JJ", "Tester",6,date "1968-09-28", 1500, 0, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(11,"Ana","AA", "Coder", 8,date "1966-12-30", 1100, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(12,"Jane","R", "Manager", 6,date "1969-12-03", 800 , NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(13,"Fake","MG", "Coder", 4,date "1959-02-13", 3000, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> insert into emp values(14,"Mike","TJA","Manager", 7,date "1962-01-23", 1300, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> select ename, job, sal, comm

 2  from   emp
 3  where  comm is not null;

ENAME JOB SAL COMM


-------- ---------- ----------

Jack Tester 1600 300 Wil Tester 1250 500 Mary Tester 1250 1400 Take Tester 1500 0 SQL> SQL> SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped.

 </source>
   
  


null is null

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> select * from dual where null is null; D - X 1 row selected.

 </source>
   
  


= NULL or is NULL

   <source lang="sql">
 

SQL> SQL> CREATE TABLE DEPT (DEPTNO NUMBER(2),DNAME VARCHAR2(14),LOC VARCHAR2(13) ); Table created. SQL> SQL> INSERT INTO DEPT VALUES (10, "ACCOUNTING", "NEW YORK"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO DEPT VALUES (20, "RESEARCH", "DALLAS"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO DEPT VALUES (30, "SALES", "CHICAGO"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO DEPT VALUES (40, "OPERATIONS", "BOSTON"); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> insert into dept ( deptno, dname, loc ) values ( 50, "IT", NULL ); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> select * from dept where loc = NULL; no rows selected SQL> select * from dept where loc IS NULL;

   DEPTNO DNAME          LOC

-------------- -------------
       50 IT

SQL> select * from dept where loc IS NOT NULL;

   DEPTNO DNAME          LOC

-------------- -------------
       10 ACCOUNTING     NEW YORK
       20 RESEARCH       DALLAS
       30 SALES          CHICAGO
       40 OPERATIONS     BOSTON

4 rows selected. SQL> SQL> drop table dept; Table dropped. SQL>

 </source>
   
  


Null value compare

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> SQL> select * from dual where null=null; no rows selected SQL> ----------------------------------------- SQL> select * from dual where null <> null; no rows selected SQL> ----------------------------------------- SQL> select * from dual where null is null; D - X SQL>


 </source>
   
  


Using the IS NULL operator

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> SQL> SQL> -- create demo table SQL> create table Employee(

 2    ID                 VARCHAR2(4 BYTE)         NOT NULL,
 3    First_Name         VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 4    Last_Name          VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 5    Start_Date         DATE,
 6    End_Date           DATE,
 7    Salary             Number(8,2),
 8    City               VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 9    Description        VARCHAR2(15 BYTE)
10  )
11  /

Table created. SQL> SQL> -- prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2               values ("01","Jason",    "Martin",  to_date("19960725","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20060725","YYYYMMDD"), 1234.56, "Toronto",  "Programmer")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("02","Alison",   "Mathews", to_date("19760321","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19860221","YYYYMMDD"), 6661.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("03","James",    "Smith",   to_date("19781212","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19900315","YYYYMMDD"), 6544.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("04","Celia",    "Rice",    to_date("19821024","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19990421","YYYYMMDD"), 2344.78, null        ,"Manager")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("05","Robert",   "Black",   to_date("19840115","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980808","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("06","Linda",    "Green",   to_date("19870730","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19960104","YYYYMMDD"), 4322.78,"New York",  "Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("07","David",    "Larry",   to_date("19901231","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980212","YYYYMMDD"), 7897.78,"New York",  "Manager")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("08","James",    "Cat",     to_date("19960917","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20020415","YYYYMMDD"), 1232.78,"Vancouver", "Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee

 2  /

ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME START_DAT END_DATE SALARY CITY DESCRIPTION


---------- ---------- --------- --------- ---------- ---------- ---------------

01 Jason Martin 25-JUL-96 25-JUL-06 1234.56 Toronto Programmer 02 Alison Mathews 21-MAR-76 21-FEB-86 6661.78 Vancouver Tester 03 James Smith 12-DEC-78 15-MAR-90 6544.78 Vancouver Tester 04 Celia Rice 24-OCT-82 21-APR-99 2344.78 Manager 05 Robert Black 15-JAN-84 08-AUG-98 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 06 Linda Green 30-JUL-87 04-JAN-96 4322.78 New York Tester 07 David Larry 31-DEC-90 12-FEB-98 7897.78 New York Manager 08 James Cat 17-SEP-96 15-APR-02 1232.78 Vancouver Tester 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- Using the IS NULL operator SQL> SELECT ID, First_Name, Last_Name

 2  FROM Employee
 3  WHERE City IS NULL;

ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME


---------- ----------

04 Celia Rice SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- clean the table SQL> drop table Employee

 2  /

Table dropped. SQL>


 </source>
   
  


where null <> null

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> SQL> select * from dual where null <> null; no rows selected SQL>

 </source>
   
  


where null=null (does null equal null)

   <source lang="sql">

SQL> SQL> select * from dual where null=null; no rows selected

 </source>