Oracle PL/SQL/Select Query/Column Concatenation

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Column connections for function

   <source lang="sql">
 

SQL> CREATE TABLE EMP(

 2      EMPNO NUMBER(4) NOT NULL,
 3      ENAME VARCHAR2(10),
 4      JOB VARCHAR2(9),
 5      MGR NUMBER(4),
 6      HIREDATE DATE,
 7      SAL NUMBER(7, 2),
 8      COMM NUMBER(7, 2),
 9      DEPTNO NUMBER(2)
10  );

Table created. SQL> SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7369, "SMITH", "CLERK", 7902,TO_DATE("17-DEC-1980", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 800, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7499, "ALLEN", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("20-FEB-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1600, 300, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7521, "WARD", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("22-FEB-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1250, 500, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7566, "JONES", "MANAGER", 7839,TO_DATE("2-APR-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 2975, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7654, "MARTIN", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("28-SEP-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1250, 1400, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7698, "BLAKE", "MANAGER", 7839,TO_DATE("1-MAY-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 2850, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7782, "CLARK", "MANAGER", 7839,TO_DATE("9-JUN-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 2450, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7788, "SCOTT", "ANALYST", 7566,TO_DATE("09-DEC-1982", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 3000, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7839, "KING", "PRESIDENT", NULL,TO_DATE("17-NOV-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 5000, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7844, "TURNER", "SALESMAN", 7698,TO_DATE("8-SEP-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1500, 0, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7876, "ADAMS", "CLERK", 7788,TO_DATE("12-JAN-1983", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1100, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7900, "JAMES", "CLERK", 7698,TO_DATE("3-DEC-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 950, NULL, 30); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7902, "FORD", "ANALYST", 7566,TO_DATE("3-DEC-1981", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 3000, NULL, 20); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO EMP VALUES(7934, "MILLER", "CLERK", 7782,TO_DATE("23-JAN-1982", "DD-MON-YYYY"), 1300, NULL, 10); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> select empno || lpad(initcap(ename),40-length(empno),".")

 2  "emp Directory" from emp;

emp Directory


7369...............................Smith 7499...............................Allen 7521................................Ward 7566...............................Jones 7654..............................Martin 7698...............................Blake 7782...............................Clark 7788...............................Scott 7839................................King 7844..............................Turner 7876...............................Adams emp Directory


7900...............................James 7902................................Ford 7934..............................Miller 14 rows selected. SQL> SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped.


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Concatenating columns in action

   <source lang="sql">
 

SQL> SQL> SQL> -- create demo table SQL> create table Employee(

 2    ID                 VARCHAR2(4 BYTE)         NOT NULL,
 3    First_Name         VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 4    Last_Name          VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 5    Start_Date         DATE,
 6    End_Date           DATE,
 7    Salary             Number(8,2),
 8    City               VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 9    Description        VARCHAR2(15 BYTE)
10  )
11  /

Table created. SQL> SQL> -- prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2               values ("01","Jason",    "Martin",  to_date("19960725","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20060725","YYYYMMDD"), 1234.56, "Toronto",  "Programmer")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("02","Alison",   "Mathews", to_date("19760321","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19860221","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("03","James",    "Smith",   to_date("19781212","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19900315","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("04","Celia",    "Rice",    to_date("19821024","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19990421","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Manager")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("05","Robert",   "Black",   to_date("19840115","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980808","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("06","Linda",    "Green",   to_date("19870730","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19960104","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78,"New York",  "Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("07","David",    "Larry",   to_date("19901231","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980212","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78,"New York",  "Manager")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("08","James",    "Cat",     to_date("19960917","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20020415","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78,"Vancouver", "Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee

 2  /

ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME START_DAT END_DATE SALARY CITY DESCRIPTION


---------- ---------- --------- --------- ---------- ---------- ---------------

01 Jason Martin 25-JUL-96 25-JUL-06 1234.56 Toronto Programmer 02 Alison Mathews 21-MAR-76 21-FEB-86 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 03 James Smith 12-DEC-78 15-MAR-90 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 04 Celia Rice 24-OCT-82 21-APR-99 2334.78 Vancouver Manager 05 Robert Black 15-JAN-84 08-AUG-98 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 06 Linda Green 30-JUL-87 04-JAN-96 2334.78 New York Tester 07 David Larry 31-DEC-90 12-FEB-98 2334.78 New York Manager 08 James Cat 17-SEP-96 15-APR-02 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- Concatenating columns SQL> SELECT First_Name || Last_Name FROM Employee; FIRST_NAME||LAST_NAM


JasonMartin AlisonMathews JamesSmith CeliaRice RobertBlack LindaGreen DavidLarry JamesCat 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- clean the table SQL> drop table Employee

 2  /

Table dropped. SQL> SQL> SQL>


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Joining Strings

   <source lang="sql">
 

SQL> SQL> SQL> CREATE TABLE emp (

 2     empID     INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
 3     CourseID    INT NOT NULL,
 4     ProfessorID INT NOT NULL,
 5     RoomID      INT NOT NULL,
 6     Time        VARCHAR(50));

Table created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (1,1,1,6,"Mon 09:00-11:00"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (2,2,1,5,"Mon 11:00-12:00, Thu 09:00-11:00"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (3,3,2,3,"Mon 14:00-16:00"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (4,4,3,2,"Tue 10:00-12:00, Thu 14:00-15:00"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (5,5,2,9,"Tue 14:00-16:00"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (6,6,3,2,"Tue 16:00-17:00, Thu 15:00-17:00"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (7,7,4,3,"Wed 09:00-11:00"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (8,8,5,8,"Wed 11:00-13:00, Fri 09:00-11:00"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (9,9,1,5,"Fri 11:00-13:00"); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp (empID,CourseID,ProfessorID,RoomID,Time) VALUES (10,10,6,9,"Fri 14:00-16:00"); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> SELECT empID,Time || ", Room " || RoomID AS empDetails

 2  FROM emp;
    EMPID

EMPDETAILS


        1

Mon 09:00-11:00, Room 6

        2

Mon 11:00-12:00, Thu 09:00-11:00, Room 5

        3

Mon 14:00-16:00, Room 3

        4

Tue 10:00-12:00, Thu 14:00-15:00, Room 2

        5

Tue 14:00-16:00, Room 9

        6

Tue 16:00-17:00, Thu 15:00-17:00, Room 2

        7

Wed 09:00-11:00, Room 3

        8

Wed 11:00-13:00, Fri 09:00-11:00, Room 8

        9

Fri 11:00-13:00, Room 5

       10

Fri 14:00-16:00, Room 9

10 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped.


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Place a space duing the column concatenation

   <source lang="sql">
 

SQL> SQL> SQL> -- create demo table SQL> create table Employee(

 2    ID                 VARCHAR2(4 BYTE)         NOT NULL,
 3    First_Name         VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 4    Last_Name          VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 5    Start_Date         DATE,
 6    End_Date           DATE,
 7    Salary             Number(8,2),
 8    City               VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),
 9    Description        VARCHAR2(15 BYTE)
10  )
11  /

Table created. SQL> SQL> -- prepare data SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2               values ("01","Jason",    "Martin",  to_date("19960725","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20060725","YYYYMMDD"), 1234.56, "Toronto",  "Programmer")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("02","Alison",   "Mathews", to_date("19760321","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19860221","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("03","James",    "Smith",   to_date("19781212","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19900315","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("04","Celia",    "Rice",    to_date("19821024","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19990421","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Manager")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("05","Robert",   "Black",   to_date("19840115","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980808","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78, "Vancouver","Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("06","Linda",    "Green",   to_date("19870730","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19960104","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78,"New York",  "Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("07","David",    "Larry",   to_date("19901231","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("19980212","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78,"New York",  "Manager")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> insert into Employee(ID, First_Name, Last_Name, Start_Date, End_Date, Salary, City, Description)

 2                values("08","James",    "Cat",     to_date("19960917","YYYYMMDD"), to_date("20020415","YYYYMMDD"), 2334.78,"Vancouver", "Tester")
 3  /

1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- display data in the table SQL> select * from Employee

 2  /

ID FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME START_DAT END_DATE SALARY CITY DESCRIPTION


---------- ---------- --------- --------- ---------- ---------- ---------------

01 Jason Martin 25-JUL-96 25-JUL-06 1234.56 Toronto Programmer 02 Alison Mathews 21-MAR-76 21-FEB-86 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 03 James Smith 12-DEC-78 15-MAR-90 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 04 Celia Rice 24-OCT-82 21-APR-99 2334.78 Vancouver Manager 05 Robert Black 15-JAN-84 08-AUG-98 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 06 Linda Green 30-JUL-87 04-JAN-96 2334.78 New York Tester 07 David Larry 31-DEC-90 12-FEB-98 2334.78 New York Manager 08 James Cat 17-SEP-96 15-APR-02 2334.78 Vancouver Tester 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> --Place a space between the first and last name SQL> SELECT First_Name || " " || Last_Name FROM Employee; FIRST_NAME||""||LAST_


Jason Martin Alison Mathews James Smith Celia Rice Robert Black Linda Green David Larry James Cat 8 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> -- clean the table SQL> drop table Employee

 2  /

Table dropped. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL>


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Using || to form a long string

   <source lang="sql">
 

SQL> SQL> CREATE TABLE emp (

 2    emp_id               NUMBER,
 3    ename             VARCHAR2(40),
 4    hire_date        DATE DEFAULT sysdate,
 5    end_date DATE,
 6    rate     NUMBER(5,2),
 7    CONSTRAINT emp_pk    PRIMARY KEY (emp_id)
 8  );

Table created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (101, "Mary", to_date("15-Nov-1961","dd-mon-yyyy"),null,169); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (102, "Tom", to_date("16-Sep-1964","dd-mon-yyyy"),to_date("5-May-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),135); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (104, "Peter", to_date("29-Dec-1987","dd-mon-yyyy"),to_date("1-Apr-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),99); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (105, "Mike", to_date("15-Jun-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),null,121); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (107, "Less", to_date("2-Jan-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),null,45); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (108, "Park", to_date("1-Mar-1994","dd-mon-yyyy"),to_date("15-Nov-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),220); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (110, "Ink", to_date("4-Apr-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),to_date("30-Sep-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),84); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (111, "Tike", to_date("23-Aug-1976","dd-mon-yyyy"),null,100); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (112, "Inn", to_date("15-Nov-1961","dd-mon-yyyy"),to_date("4-Apr-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),70); 1 row created. SQL> INSERT INTO emp(emp_id, ename, hire_date,end_date, rate)VALUES (113, "Kate", to_date("3-Mar-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),to_date("31-Oct-2004","dd-mon-yyyy"),300); 1 row created. SQL> SQL> SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(emp_id) || ","

 2         || TO_CHAR(rate) || ","
 3         || TO_CHAR(hire_date,"MM/DD/YYYY") || ","
 4         || """ || ename || """
 5  FROM emp
 6  WHERE end_date IS NULL;

101,169,11/15/1961,"Mary" 105,121,06/15/2004,"Mike" 107,45,01/02/2004,"Less" 111,100,08/23/1976,"Tike" 4 rows selected. SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> drop table emp; Table dropped. SQL>


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